Working with Crafter Studio’s API

Crafter CMS is a decoupled CMS composed multiple microservices where content authoring and content delivery capabilities and services are separated into their own distinct, subsystems.

Organizations often want to interact with the content authoring and management system via APIs. In this article, we’ll show the basics of interacting with this API by example:

  • Authenticate
  • Get a list of projects under management
  • Write content to a project

To keep things really basic, we’ll use CURL, a ubiquitous Linux command tool as our client.

You can find the full Crafter Studio API for Crafter CMS version 3.0 here
http://docs.craftercms.org/en/3.0/developers/projects/studio/api/index.html

Step 1: Authenticate

We’ll use the authenticate API
http://docs.craftercms.org/en/3.0/developers/projects/studio/api/security/login.html

curl -d '{"username":"admin","password":"admin"}' --cookie "XSRF-TOKEN=A_VALUE" --header "X-XSRF-TOKEN:A_VALUE" --header "Content-Type: application/json" -v -X POST http://localhost:8080/studio/api/1/services/api/1/security/login.json

The first thing you’ll note is that we’re going to perform a POST, passing the username and password as a JSON object.  In a production environment, you will want to use HTTPS.

The next thing you will notice, we are passing a cookie “XSRF-TOKEN” and a header “X-XSRF-TOKEN”.  The value passed for these are arbitrary.  They must match and they must be passed in all future PUT and POST API calls.  These are used to protect against certain cross-browser scripting attacks.  If you are using Studio APIs as part of a web client you want to make sure these values randomly generated.

When you issue the curl command you will get back a response:
 * Trying ::1...
 * Trying 127.0.0.1...
 * Connected to localhost (127.0.0.1) port 8080 (#0)
 > POST /studio/api/1/services/api/1/security/login.json HTTP/1.1
 > Host: localhost:8080
 > User-Agent: curl/7.43.0
 > Accept: */*
 > Cookie: XSRF-TOKEN=A_VALUE
 > X-XSRF-TOKEN:A_VALUE
 > Content-Type: application/json
 > Content-Length: 39
 >
 * upload completely sent off: 39 out of 39 bytes
 < HTTP/1.1 200
 < Cache-Control: no-cache, no-store, max-age=0, must-revalidate
 < Pragma: no-cache
 < Expires: 0
 < Set-Cookie: JSESSIONID=2E114725C82F3EE44ADC04B578A3BE8F; Path=/studio; HttpOnly
 < Content-Type: application/json;charset=UTF-8
 < Content-Language: en-US
 < Transfer-Encoding: chunked
 < Date: Mon, 22 Jan 2018 21:32:48 GMT
 <
 * Connection #0 to host localhost left intact
 {"username":"admin","first_name":"admin","last_name":"admin","email":"evaladmin@example.com"}

Note the response returned is a successful 200 status code and the response contains JSON with details for the authenticated user.

Also found as part of the request is the JSESSION cookie.  You will need this value for all future requests.

Step 2: Get a list of sites the user is authorized to work with

http://docs.craftercms.org/en/3.0/developers/projects/studio/api/site/get-sites-per-user.html

curl --cookie "XSRF-TOKEN=A_VALUE;JSESSIONID=2E114725C82F3EE44ADC04B578A3BE8F" -H "X-XSRF-TOKEN:A_VALUE"  -X GET http://localhost:8080/studio/api/1/services/api/1/site/get-per-user.json?username=admin
Note the CURL command contains your session ID and XSRF tokens.
When you issue the CURL you will get a response that contains sites your user has access to:
{"sites":[{"id":9,"siteId":"ar","name":"ar","description":"","status":null,"liveUrl":null,"lastCommitId":"951004363449cc83209f307b1e9f110dab37fed7","publishingEnabled":1,"publishingStatusMessage":"idle|Idle","lastVerifiedGitlogCommitId":null},{"id":5,"siteId":"diiot","name":"diiot","description":"","status":null,"liveUrl":null,"lastCommitId":"92d543eaa164b1ebfbdd6ce538ae028d4d6421b7","publishingEnabled":0,"publishingStatusMessage":"idle|Idle","lastVerifiedGitlogCommitId":"92d543eaa164b1ebfbdd6ce538ae028d4d6421b7"},{"id":10,"siteId":"editorialcom","name":"editorialcom","description":"","status":null,"liveUrl":null,"lastCommitId":"503d922f226e8ab821073e23ef5a229f907212a0","publishingEnabled":1,"publishingStatusMessage":"","lastVerifiedGitlogCommitId":"503d922f226e8ab821073e23ef5a229f907212a0"},{"id":3,"siteId":"flow","name":"flow","description":"","status":null,"liveUrl":null,"lastCommitId":"21923775c3a1fc778a364d47884b9ee2bb4928a5","publishingEnabled":1,"publishingStatusMessage":"idle|Idle","lastVerifiedGitlogCommitId":"21923775c3a1fc778a364d47884b9ee2bb4928a5"},{"id":8,"siteId":"vr","name":"vr","description":"","status":null,"liveUrl":null,"lastCommitId":"c67fd9dd25d1aa59ff13e3fda2a4387be50dfc69","publishingEnabled":1,"publishingStatusMessage":"idle|Idle","lastVerifiedGitlogCommitId":null}],"total":6}

The response above contains a number of projects.  In the next call I want to write a content object to one of the projects (editorial.com.) To do this I need the site ID.  I get this from the response above: editorialcom

Step 3: Write content to the Editorial com Project

http://docs.craftercms.org/en/3.0/developers/projects/studio/api/content/write-content.html

curl -d "<page><content-type>/page/category-landing</content-type><display-template>/templates/web/pages/category-landing.ftl</display-template><merge-strategy>inherit-levels</merge-strategy><file-name>index.xml</file-name><folder-name>test3</folder-name><internal-name>test3</internal-name><disabled >false</disabled></page>" --cookie "XSRF-TOKEN=A_VALUE;JSESSIONID=2E114725C82F3EE44ADC04B578A3BE8F" -H "X-XSRF-TOKEN:A_VALUE"  -X POST "http://localhost:8080/studio/api/1/services/api/1/content/write-content.json?site=editorialcom&phase=onSave&path=/site/website/test3/index.xml&fileName=index.xml&user=admin&contentType=/page/category-landing&unlock=true"

In the call above note:

  • We are passing in content as the POST body.  The content is in XML format.  In Crafter content objects are stored as simple XML documents.
  • We are passing the Session ID and the XSRF tokens
  • We are passing a number of parameters that tell Crafter CMS where and how to store the content in the repository

Conclusion

In this article we covered the basic mechanics of connecting to and interacting with Crafter Studio, the authoring services of Crafter CMS.  We’ve avoided the nitty gritty details of each API call in favor of the macro mechanics.  You now have the basic skills and capability to interact with any Crafter Studio API found here: http://docs.craftercms.org/en/3.0/developers/projects/studio/api/index.html.  Get out there and integrate!

 

Content Inheritance Basics in Crafter CMS

Crafter CMS supports content inheritance out of the box and supports it via a pluggable mechanism that allows developers to augment or override what’s out of the box.  In this article, we’ll dig into the basics of this functionality.

What is Content Inheritance

Content inheritance is the ability of the CMS to centrally manage content values.  Updating this content in one place automatically updates the value everywhere else.  This goes far beyond simple “shared components” in the sense that, as far as the system is concerned, the inherited values, in fact, belong to the content in question.  In general, with inherited content you may:

  • Centrally define default values
  • Override previously inherited values (from some other level of the graph)
  • Delete or mute previously inherited values (from some other level of the graph)

Content inheritance is useful for a wide range of use cases including translation support, microsite management and common values (hotel count, employee count, CEO name, etc) that you want to use throughout the content but want to manage centrally.

Content Inheritance Basics

Content objects in Crafter CMS are essentially structured markup, XML by default, and house data authored via Crafter Studio by content authors. Content objects are typically structured as a tree which naturally suits the notion of inheriting from a parent (not to say that the inheritance mechanics are limited to that topology). Inheritance works as follows:

Assume we have two objects, one called Parent and one called Child and they’re set up as follows:

Parent: Below you’ll see a typical level descriptor which will be the parent of another object. You’ll note the level descriptor defines multiple elements that are common to everything at this level in the hierarchy and below it. This level descriptor defines a primary CSS file main.css, a common header component default-header.xml and a common footer component default-footer.xml.

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    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <component>
            <content-type>/component/level-descriptor</content-type>
            <display-template/>
            <merge-strategy>inherit-levels</merge-strategy>
            <objectGroupId>4123</objectGroupId>
            <objectId>41d1c0c5-bfc9-8fe8-2461-dc57a82b6cab</objectId>
            <file-name>crafter-level-descriptor.level.xml</file-name>
            <folder-name/>
            <cssGroup>
                    <item>
                            <key>/static-assets/css/main.css</key>
                            <value>/static-assets/css/main.css</value>
                            <fileType_s>css</fileType_s>
                    </item>
            </cssGroup>
            <jsGroup/>
            <createdDate>2/7/2016 19:40:03</createdDate>
            <lastModifiedDate>10/8/2016 19:58:30</lastModifiedDate>
            <defaultHeader>
                    <item>
                            <key>/site/components/components/header/default-header.xml</key>
                            <value>Default Header</value>
                            <include>/site/components/components/header/default-header.xml</include>
                            <disableFlattening>false</disableFlattening>
                    </item>
            </defaultHeader>
            <defaultFooter>
                    <item>
                            <key>/site/components/components/footer/default-footer.xml</key>
                            <value>Default Footer</value>
                            <include>/site/components/components/footer/default-footer.xml</include>
                            <disableFlattening>false</disableFlattening>
                    </item>
            </defaultFooter>
            <lastModifiedDate_dt>10/8/2016 19:58:30</lastModifiedDate_dt>
    </component>

Child: Below is the XML file of a page residing under the above level descriptor and is setup to inherit from it. You’ll note the definition of the merge-strategy as inherit-levels, this invokes the level-based inheritance mechanics that require Crafter CMS to look at current and higher levels for files named crafter-level-descriptor.level.xml (this is configurable). You’ll also note that this page doesn’t specify the CSS file/group of files to include, nor will it need to specify the header nor footer components.

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    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
    <page>
            <content-type>/page/one-col-parallax</content-type>
            <display-template>/templates/web/pages/one-col-parallax.ftl</display-template>
            <merge-strategy>inherit-levels</merge-strategy>
            <objectGroupId>9cef</objectGroupId>
            <objectId>001f0955-6da3-8b7a-4e6b-6b373139d0ba</objectId>
            <file-name>index.xml</file-name>
            <folder-name>child-page</folder-name>
            <internal-name>Child</internal-name>
            <navLabel>CHILD</navLabel>
            <title>Child Page</title>
            <headerOverlap>no-overlap</headerOverlap>
            <placeInNav>true</placeInNav>
            <orderDefault_f>12000</orderDefault_f>
            <description>This is the Child page.</description>
            <disabled>false</disabled>
            <createdDate>7/31/2016 16:52:39</createdDate>
            <lastModifiedDate>8/1/2016 18:55:09</lastModifiedDate>
            <body>
                    <h1>Hello World</h1>
            </body>
    </page>

Crafter CMS will invoke the inheritance mechanics implemented in the merge strategy inherit-levels to merge the page and the level descriptor and the merge strategy will pull in the elements defined in the level descriptor into the child page before handing the new model (XML) to the rendering system. This means that when the page renders, the model will automatically contain the meta-data defined in the parent level descriptor. In our example above, the page will automatically inherit the meta-data fields cssGroupdefaultHeader, and defaultFooter.

When an element is defined by the level descriptor and then subsequently defined by a child, the child’s definition overrides the level descriptor.

This mechanism allows you to define meta-data that flows down the information architecture of the site such that an entire site can have defaults and those defaults can be overwritten by sections individual page. Some examples of real-life use of inheritance:

  • Site logo
  • Global stylesheet and JS includes
  • Global headers and footers
  • Section meta-data (flows to all pages/subsections)

The inherit-levels mechanism allows you to set level descriptors at various levels of the information architecture with lower levels overriding upper levels.

What we discussed thus far is a single inheritance strategy implementation, inherit-levels, the code to which is available here: InheritLevelsMergeStrategy.java. There are more inheritance strategies implemented out of the box with Crafter CMS and you can build your own to suit your needs.

Out of the Box Strategies

Strategy
Description
single-file
No content should be inherited.
inherit-levels
Content from Crafter level descriptors (crafter-level-descriptor.xml)
in the current and upper levels should be inherited.
explicit-parent
The parent descriptor to inherit is specified explicitly in the XML
tag parent-descriptor.
targeted-content
The page will be merged with other pages in a targeted content
hierarchy, including level descriptors. For example,
/en_US/about-us will generate the following merging list:
/en_US/about-us/index.xml,
/en_US/about-us/crafter-level-descriptor.xml,
/en/about-us/index.xml,
/en/about-us/crafter-level-descriptor.xml,
/about-us/index.xml/about-us/crafter-level-descriptor.xml,
/crafter-level-descriptor.xml.